Thursday, March 30, 2006
Monday, March 27, 2006
Kelvin Lim is using a new brain-imaging method to understand schizophrenia.
By Emily Singer
"Flipping through a pile of brain scans, a neurologist or psychiatrist would be hard pressed to pick out the one that belonged to a schizophrenic. Although schizophrenics suffer from profound mental problems -- hallucinated conversations and imagined conspiracies are the best known -- their brains look more or less normal. This contradiction fascinated Kelvin Lim, a neuroscientist and psychiatrist at the University of Minnesota Medical School, when he began using imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the schizophrenic brain in the early 1990s.Then, in 1996, a colleague told him about diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a newly developed variation of MRI that allowed scientists to study the connections between different brain areas for the first time. His group has recently found that memory and cognitive problems associated with schizophrenia, major but undertreated aspects of the disease, are linked to flaws in nerve fibers near the hippocampus, a brain area crucial for learning and memory."
Sunday, March 26, 2006
Friday, March 24, 2006
The bold headings indicate the section of the syllabus that the question addresses.
1.1 Basic Physics
1 In the Compton effect:
(a) There is interaction between a photon and a free electron.
(b) The larger the angle through which the photon is scattered, the more energy it loses.
(c) The wavelength change produced depends upon the scattering material.
(d) High energy radiation is scattered more than lower energy radiation.
(e) The amount of scattering that occurs depends on the electron density of the scattering material.
1.2 Radiation Hazards and Dosimetry
2 Concerning radiation dose:
(a) PA chest x-ray effective dose is approximately 0.02 mSv.
(b) Annual effective dose limit for members of the public is 5 mSv.
(c) Average annual dose in the UK from natural background radiation is 0.1 Sv.
(d) The average annual effective dose to the UK population from medical exposure is 3 mSv.
(e) Effective dose to patients having a radionuclide bone scan with 600 MBq technetium-99m is approximately 4 mSv.
2.1 General Radiation Protection
3 In diagnostic radiology, the following values are typical:
(a) 5 mSv is the annual effective dose limit for classified staff.
(b) 1 mGy for skin dose to the patient in chest radiography.
(c) 2 mm lead equivalence for a lead rubber apron.
(d) 25 mGy per minute for entrance dose rate to patient during abdominal fluoroscopy.
(e) 4 GBq of iodine-131 for a diagnostic thyroid scan.
3.1 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999
4 An employee must become a classified worker if
(a) they work more than three sessions per week with ionising radiation.
(b) three tenths of relevant dose limit is exceeded.
(c) they are likely to receive a whole body dose greater than 6 mSv annually.
(d) the dose to their hands is likely to exceed 150 mSv annually.
(e) they become pregnant.
3.2 & 3.3 Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 and Other Relevant Legislation
5 Regarding The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 [IR(ME)R]:
(a) Overall responsibility for keeping dose to the patient as low as reasonably practicable rests with the practitioner.
(b) The practitioner is the only person entitled to authorise an x-ray exposure.
(c) Only doctors and dentists are permitted to request an x-ray.
(d) The person performing quality control tests on an isotope calibrator must have training as required by IR(ME)R.
(e) The enforcing authority for IR(ME)R is the Health and Safety Executive.
4.1 Diagnostic Radiology
6 Radiological image unsharpness increases
(a) if shorter exposure times are used.
(b) as the object to film distance increases.
(c) as the target angle decreases.
(d) if a grid is used.
(e) as the focal spot size increases.
4.2 Fluoroscopy and Fluorography
7 In automatic mode fluoroscopy, the patient entrance surface dose rate
(a) usually increases with image intensifier field size.
(b) depends on the added filtration.
(c) is independent of the kV-mA characteristic used.
(d) doubles if the patient-intensifier face distance is halved.
(e) should be less than 50 mGym-1.
4.3 Computed Tomography
8 Regarding computed tomography:
(a) A CT number of 0 is assigned to water.
(b) Image quality is limited by electronic noise.
(c) Axial image resolution is improved with reduction in slice width.
(d) An unfiltered x-ray beam is used.
(e) The typical effective dose for a CT head scan is 10 mSv.
4.4 Patient Dosimetry
9 The dose to a patient may be reduced by using
(a) a grid.
(c) additional copper filters.
(d) a high tube voltage.
(e) a small focal spot.
4.5 Radionuclide Radiology
10 Concerning radiopharmaceuticals:
(a) The ideal radiopharmaceutical should have as short a physical halflife as possible.
(b) The ideal imaging radiopharmaceutical should emit only gamma radiation.
(c) The gamma radiation emitted contributes a larger part of the radiation dose to the patient than any accompanying beta radiation.
(d) The effective half-life is longer than the biological half-life.
(e) The labelling isotope should remain attached to the tracer material throughout the examination.
Google Health, what is it? by ZDNet's Garett Rogers -- It isn't a big surprise that Google is thinking about healthcare -- but now information suggests products or services for that industry are in the master plan.Adam Bosworth, former VP of Engineering at BEA Systems, is working at Google with the title "Architect, Google Health" according to the attendee list for PC Forum. [...]
Thursday, March 23, 2006
Sumer Sethi's Home Page
Wednesday, March 22, 2006
Tuesday, March 21, 2006
Reference-CBS News (Via WebMD)
Thursday, March 16, 2006
Wednesday, March 15, 2006
The letter comes in the wake of yet another incident of a patient's relative threatening an on-duty doctor at the hospital. "On March 13 around 10-30 p.m., Kalawati Saran Children Hospital's Paediatric-ICU was held hostage by a patient's relative with a gun in his hand threatening to shoot in case his already stable child was shifted from the ICU to the ward. This hostage drama paralysed routine work for about an hour and prevented emergency services. Agitated resident doctors complained to the police in the night but no action was taken. In the morning, doctors talked to the Medical Superintendent who forwarded the complaint to the police,'' said a member of the Resident Doctors' Association of the hospital on Tuesday.
"We are demanding that immediate action be taken against the culprit and that he be charged with attempt to murder. We are also demanding formation of a campus security council. A beat constable should be available round the clock on the campus,'' said the president of the Resident Doctors' Association of the hospital, Sumer Kumar Sethi.
"He came back yesterday at night in a drunken state. Dr Navin Butt, who was the senior resident on duty at the ICU, has been left shaken after the incident. Why is that we have to always go on strike for our demands to be met?,"queried Dr Sumer Sethi, President, Resident Doctors' Association (RDA). The RDA has demanded that a beat constable be available round-the-clock in the college campus and that a campus security council be formed with representation of the area DCP, ACP, SHO, RDA, nurses and students. There have been several such incidents in the past couple of months which have even led to strikes at Lok Nayak and Guru Teg Bahadur hospitals. "
"Frank Macaluso Jr. is married with children, lives in Exeter and works in Visalia as a radiologist. And he's hoping to become the next governor of California and has filed the necessary paperwork to run as a Democrat on the June primary ballot."
Sunday, March 12, 2006
By Sumer Kumar Sethi, MD; Ravi Shankar Solanki, MD; Vibhu Mendiratta, MD. Applied Radiology Volume: 35 Number: 3 March 2006 Pg-44-45.
Friday, March 10, 2006
Wednesday, March 08, 2006
Radiology Residents Rule! But What Happens Next?
Radiology has over years risen to the top most choice of the medical students choosing residency programmes. However, demands from a Radiologist have also increased over years, number of investigations done and expectations of a perfect diagnosis have also increased tremendously. Morever, the pay scalle difference between a university job versus a pvt practise career is too large and it is discouraging very bright students to take up university jobs as of now. I for myself would love to take a university job post my residency but the pay scale difference is very discouraging.
Since the 1970s, Radiology has been transformed from a helpful profession that may or may not have provided a definitive diagnosis, with no particular expectation of accuracy (at least from a legal standpoint), to the discipline it is today - ie, one that is expected to make the correct diagnosis with a 100% level of confidence.
Some extracts from an article in MEDSCAPE
"Radiology residents in the Unites States are:
- Among the brightest of all medical students;
- Hardworking and often overworked;
- In considerable financial debt upon completion of residency;
- Not trained in a culture that values research over revenue; and
- Often facing a lower-paying university career vs a higher-paying private practice career.
Taking into consideration the key issues outlined above, is it any wonder that in Radiology we can start off with the brightest of medical students and, at the conclusion of residency, end up with individuals who are jaded from their training experience and whose primary motivation is making money and enjoying life?"
Sunday, March 05, 2006
Medical News Today
Saturday, March 04, 2006
Some doctors believe talented students are missing out on jobsA new online application system for junior doctor posts is harming the job prospects of many top students, more than 80 senior doctors have warned. The Modernising Medical Careers system scraps interviews in favour of points scoring from application forms answers. In a letter to the Times, the specialists claim the process is untested and is leaving students bitter, angry and demoralised. But the Department of Health says the system "reduces waste and bureaucracy".
Thursday, March 02, 2006
Wednesday, March 01, 2006
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